The fumonisins producing fungi, spp

The fumonisins producing fungi, spp. produced in cereals by pathogenic fungi, namely also produces fumonisins in the crop plants of peanut, maize, and grape [2,3,4,5,6]. The maize and maize-based products are most commonly infected with fumonisins besides their presence in several other grains (rice, wheat, barley, maize, rye, oat, and millet) and grain products (tortillas, corn flask, chips) [7,8] which have major influences on health. More than 15 fumonisin homologues have been known and characterized as fumonisin A, B, C, and P Vegfa [9,10]. Further among fumonisin B, FB1, FB2, and FB3 are most abundant with FB1 being the most toxic form that can co-exists with other forms of fumonisin, i.e., FB2 and FB3 [11]. These (FB1, FB2, and FB3) forms are the main food contaminants. FB1 consists of a diester with propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid (TCA) and 2-amino-12,16-dime thyl-3,5,10,14,15-pentahydroxyleicosane where hydroxyl (OH-) groups at the C-14 and C-15 positions involved with the carboxyl groups (-COOH) of TCA to form an ester. On the other hand, FB2 and FB3 are actually the C-5 and C-10 dehydroxy analogues of FB1 [12]. The toxins are linked with several health issues like cancer of the esophagus as evident from different regions of the world. Fumonisins are a very sensitive issue all around the world, which occur in Europe (51%) and Asia (85%) [13]. The occurrence of fumonisins with other related toxins in feed and food is reported in various countries like Argentina [14], Brazil [15], China [16], Italy [17], Portugal [18], Spain [19], Tanzania [20], and Thailand [21]. They are also reported to have toxic effects on the liver and nephron in all the tested animals [22]. In addition, FB1 is implicated with the incidences of hepatocarcinoma, stimulation and suppression 2-Chloroadenosine (CADO) of the immune system, defects in the neural-tube, nephrotoxicity, 2-Chloroadenosine (CADO) as well as other ailments. It is prominent as a promoter of hepatocarcinoma [23] where its synergistic interactions with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has been exhibited in animal models (rainbow trout and rats) for two stages, i.e., initiation and promotion of cancer [24,25,26]. The international agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) characterized FB1 as a group 2B possible carcinogen for human. Besides this, it can cause toxicity in several animals like rats, mice, and rabbits [27]. Further, a temporary maximum tolerable daily intake for fumonisins has been set as 2 g/kg bw/day based on the lack of any observed adverse effects for nephrotoxicity in male rats by the joint Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) [28]. 2. Major Source of Fumonisin Fumonisins are mainly produced by and and other spp. The genus belonging to the family Nectriaceae, can be found as saprophytes in soil and plants worldwide [29]. spp. colonize to the rhizospheres of plants and then subsequently enter into the plant system. Furthermore, and are known to be the most common pathogens of maize (species, viz., at various stages of production [31]. wilt on various crops [34]. Soils responsible for suppressing wilt are found to be dominant in the spp. like and which are of agricultural importance [35,36]. The species infect maize and produce fumonisins mainly at the pre-harvesting stage. Furthermore, fumonisin production has been observed during the post-harvest period; however, under adverse conditions of storage [37]. Dietary exposure of fumonisins can lead to several harmful outcomes in both farm and experimental laboratory animals. For example, these toxins are responsible for leukoencephalomalacia in horses [38], pulmonary edema syndrome in 2-Chloroadenosine (CADO) pigs [39], hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in rats [40], and apoptosis in many other types of cells [41]. 3. Chemistry and Biosynthesis of Fumonisin Fumonisins (FBs) consist of two methyls (CCH3), one amine (-NH2), one to four hydroxyl (-OH-), and two tricarboxylic ester groups located at different positions along with the linear polyketide-derived backbone. The biosynthesis step comprises the addition.